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(Normal range: 10-85 mg/dL (0.19-1.58 mmol/L

Comment: Low from dietary deficiency, malabsorption and liver disease and in association with Vitamin A deficiency to give rise to “night blindness” and keratomalacia. Raised in high carotene intake, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia

Sample: Serum, protect from light, fasting