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Normal range: Therapeutic range: 55.5-111 mmol/L; Neonatal apnea: 33.3-72.15 mmol/L

Comment:Theophylline is used as bronchodialator of bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, neonatal apnea. There is a wide variation in the rate of metabolic breakdown between different patients, so the dose has to be adjusted for every individual by monitoring its level serially. Theophylline is affected by other drugs: Increased levels with erythromycin, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, propranolol, amiodarone, and inflenza virus vaccine. Also, cardiac decompensation, cirrhosis, and Cor pulmonale. Decreased level with phenytoin, phenobarbital, rifampin, smoking and carbamazepine

Sample: serum