المختبرات الطبية الأولى

-1

Blood

Normal range: Negative

Comment: A variety of organisms may be cultured. Commonly

Streptococci or staphylococci in bacterial endocarditis-

Pyogenic cocci, coliforms, pseudomonas and anaerobes in septicemia-

 Enteric salmonella in typhoid and paratyphoidf infections-

A repeat should be considered if growth is obtained from only one bottle

Sample: Bactec bottle, send specimen

-2

Body fluids tissue

Normal range: Negative

Comment: Use to isolate and identify aerobic and anaerobic bacteria

Sample: Body fluids & tissue

-3

 Brucella by Bactec

Comment: Establish the diagnosis of brucellosis. The organisms infect lung, spleen, liver, central nervous system, bone marrow, testes, the gallbladder, and the skeletal system. They cause vertebral osteomyelitis, large joint infections, and sacroiliitis. Genitourinary infections occur. Endocarditis and CNS infections are rare, but account for most fatalities

Sample: Bactec bottle, Blood specimen or Bone marrow

-4

Catheters

Normal range: Negative

Comment : Catheter–related sepsis, central line-associated blood-stream infections occur in ICUs. Culture of intra vascular devices should be limited to patients who have laboratory confirmed bacteremia or who appear clinically septic, but have no apparent source of infection. Randomly culturing patients who are not bacteremic or who are not clinically septic is unwarranted

Sample: Tip from intra vascular device

-5

 Culture for Fungi by Bactec

Normal range: Negative

Comment: For identification of common funal infections. Preliminary result after 1 week. Confirmation up to 4 weeks. If histoplasmosis is suspected 8 wks may be required.

(…Sample: Bactec bottle, Blood, Body fluid (CSF, Pleural

-6

 Culture for TB

Comment: In cases of Mycobacteria, successful recovery depends on the amount of specimen available for culture. Collection of early morning specimens of urine and sputum on each of three consecutive days is optimum. Gastric lavage specimens must be neutralized with sodium carbonate if transport is delayed for more than a few hours. Sputum: Bronchial washing are frequently diluted with topical anesthetics and irrigating fluids, but bronchoscopy still provides a high yield of positive specimens

Urine: Positive acid–fast stained smears with low numbers of organisms are not diagnostic, because of the presence of Mycobacterium smegmatis in genital secretions of normal patients

Stool: M. avium complex is commonly isolated from the stool of patients with AIDS and may contribute to diarrhea disease, but other agents must also be ruled out. Stool is rarely the specimen of choice for the primary diagnosis of mycobacterial infection

Sample: Sputum, Body fluid, Swabs, Urine

-7

 Stool

Normal range: Negative

Comment: Gastrointestinal disease may be the presenting and often only symptom for many foods borne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella and Campylobacter species). Devastating disease may be seen e.g., listeriosis, E. coli, typhoid fever

Sample: fresh stool

-8

Swabs

Normal range: Negative

Comment: For identification of pathogens (with antibiotic sensitives for treatment) and diagnosis of fungal infections

.Sample: HVS, ear swab, throat swab, etc

-9

Urine

Normal range: Negative

Comment: The urine culture is the gold standard for the diagnosis of bacterial UTI. Some physicians screen for UTI by using urine analysis, and proceed with cultures only if one or more of the urine analysis results are positive (e.g., leukocyte esterase, nitrites, bacteria, or leukocytes on microscopy

Sample: Urine