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:Normal range

Negative   : < 0.9 Ratio

Borderline: 0.9-1.1 Ratio

Positive   : >1.1 Ratio

Comment:IgM express recent express recent exposure to the phospholipids and are frequently found in sera of patient with SLE and related disease, which is typical for a secondary anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). There is a correlation between these Autoantibodies and enhanced incidence of thrombosis, Thrombocytopenia and habitual abortions as a consequence of placental infarct. Most patients with “anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome” have moderate or high levels of cardiolipin antibodies and are positive for IgG and IgM

Sample: serum